Acne is one of the most common skin disorders in teenagers and adults. It is characterized by the formation of small, white or black bumps that appear mostly on the face and neck. The main cause of acne is the excessive production of sebum by the sebaceous glands. Sebum is a fatty substance produced by the sebaceous glands located at the base of the hair follicles. Excessive sebum production causes blockage of the hair follicle. When this happens, bacteria starts growing inside the follicle and forms a whitehead. The follicle will rupture, forming a pustule which is a red, tender, swollen lump. If left untreated, pustules can become infected, resulting in scarring and permanent skin damage.
The most common cause of acne is the increased activity of the androgen hormone. This hormone is responsible for the development of male characteristics such as body hair and the development of female characteristics such as the growth of pubic hair and the enlargement of the breasts. It also stimulates sebum production by the sebaceous glands, leading to the formation of pimples. Another important factor in acne is the imbalance between the androgen hormone and the estrogen hormone. The androgen hormone is produced mainly by the testes. It stimulates sebum production and causes the enlargement of the sebaceous glands. In addition, it promotes the development of male characteristics. The estrogen hormone is produced mainly by the ovaries. It is responsible for the development of female characteristics such the growth of pubic hair, the enlargement of the breasts, the growth of the vagina, and the menstrual cycle. The androgen hormone can be converted into estrogen through the action of the enzyme aromatase. The conversion of the androgen hormone into estrogen can occur in two ways: directly or indirectly. Direct conversion occurs when the androgen hormone binds directly to the estrogen receptor. Indirect conversion occurs when the androgen molecule is converted into another steroid called androstenedione. Androstenedione then binds to the estrogen receptor. This conversion can be stimulated by the presence of certain substances in the body such as alcohol, caffeine, or oral contraceptives.
Acne treatment consists of various methods depending on the severity of the condition. Acne medications can be taken orally, topically, or applied directly on the affected area. Oral acne medications include antibiotics and retinoids. Topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, topical steroids, and retinoids. Acne laser treatments are not recommended for mild acne because they are expensive and may lead to complications. Acne surgery is rarely used due to the risk of scarring.
The most common acne medications are antibiotics. These medications work by destroying the bacteria that cause acne. However, they should only be used in severe cases of acne because of their side effects. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and allergic reactions. Retinoids are synthetic derivatives of vitamin A that have been proven to be effective in treating acne. They work by reducing the amount of oil produced by the sebaceous gland. They are usually applied directly on the affected areas. Benzoyl peroxide is a topical medication that has been proven to be effective in removing acne. It contains a chemical called benzoyl peroxide which kills bacteria. It is usually applied directly on the affected area or on a cotton pad and then covered with a bandage.
The best acne meds are those that combine the effects of several different medications. They contain both antibiotics and retinoids. They are usually prescribed by a dermatologist. They are usually prescribed for mild cases of acne.